The Generator Society of Bald Head Island

  • By Michael Kruse
  • Photography by Chris Hannant

Nineteen families found a raw barrier island in the 1970s and made it theirs. They took advantage of the hardscrabble, primitive playground that was Bald Head Island and developed a vision for this place that still holds true.

Dr. Thad Wester

One of the southernmost parts of the Old North State, one of the northernmost points of this country’s subtropics, hard where the warmer, calmer waters of the Cape Fear River clash with the colder, roiling currents of the Atlantic Ocean, Bald Head Island juts into the sea toward the treacherous Frying Pan Shoals. Barrier islands are as much the former as the latter — they are barriers — and so they bear the brunt of the surroundings’ relentless assault. The water and the wind spray tiny shards of salt and sand. The dunes get hit first. They protect the maritime forest. The maritime forest gets hit next. It protects the marsh. A healthy barrier island has these three environments, needs all three, disparate but dependent, and the forest in particular is the most important piece of this delicate alchemy of reciprocity.

On Bald Head, the forest is atypically lush, verdant with red cedar and cabbage palmetto, wild olive and American holly, yaupon and loblolly pine, and finally the linchpin laurel and live oaks. The enduring species of trees sport hardy, waxy leaves, resistant to the corrosive, airborne swirl — but just as important, maybe even more so, they grow in groups, like flocks of birds or schools of fish, better and more able together than they would be alone, and they form a dense, protective canopy. They interact. They cling to each other, and they move as a unit, their branches reaching to touch.

It’s almost as if the trees hold hands because it’s how they survive, and they know they won’t if they don’t.


To this island came 19 families in the 1970s. They weren’t the first people to come to Bald Head. Small, mostly intermittent populations in the past had found their way — Indians looking for food, pirates looking for loot, Civil War conscripts from both sides, lighthouse keepers and Coast Guard rescuers, day fishers and hog hunters, soldiers to test their skills and Boy Scouts to set up camp. Developers came, too, different developers in different decades and eras, all of whom had wide eyes and big plans. Mostly, though, blueprints stayed blueprints, drawn but not built, which is why the 19 families found what they found. They arrived from Lumberton and Raleigh and High Point and Southport and Hendersonville and Hickory and Concord and Cary and Charlotte and Winston-Salem and Virginia and Connecticut. They were doctors and professors and owners of businesses and presidents of companies and publishers of newspapers. They were the Bernes and the Bunns and the Capertons and the Congdons and the Caroons and the Cosgroves and the Crowells and the Cunninghams and the Dunlaps and the Grubbses and the Harpers and the Hayses and the McMahans and the Pooles and the Schmullings and the Thomases and the Tudors and the Westers and the Youngs. They showed up in Penn Yan motorboats driven into the middle of the island on a shallow creek in the couple of hours on either side of high tide because any other time didn’t work.

There was no marina. There was no electricity. There were no restaurants or stores. There were no country clubs or swimming pools. There were no phones. The roads were loose sand paths. Empty lots were priced at please please buy, at $15,000, at $11,000, at $10,000.

“There was absolutely nothing there,” Bill Berne wrote in a collection of the memories of the families.

“It was beautiful,” Bill Cunningham said not long ago on the phone from Florida.

“An escape,” Charlie Young said. “An escape from the rat race.”

“I loved it,” said Charlotte Dunlap, who was drawn to the place, instantly smitten, and still — a full-time, year-round resident all these years later. “I loved it from the minute I stepped on the island.”

They loaded precut boards and beams on rented boats, these 19 families, so they could build their Bald Head homes. They burned through 150-horsepower motors rigged on the backs of skiffs shuttling materials and men. They sometimes lost appliances and furnishings on river crossings that turned unexpectedly rough. They had tug-pushed barges that ran straight onto beaches with labeled lumber wrapped, so it wouldn’t warp in the wetness. They had four-wheel-drive Scout jeeps with half-inflated tires, so they wouldn’t get stuck in the sand. They drove pilings deep down into the ground where the granular soil was sufficiently stable. Many of them did a lot of the work on their own, logging hot, dirty days before ending in the evenings with quick dips in the cooling lagoons. They followed simple plans to erect unostentatious homes. The Westers and the Bernes were the first two to start, and then there were a few more families after that, and then a few more, and then a few more, a couple of houses here and a couple of houses there, until all of them were living hidden behind the dunes or overlooking the marsh or nestled within the thick of the forest.

“Nobody fussed, and nobody complained,” Thad Wester said recently, sitting in his house on Bay Tree Trail, a cross between a vacation getaway and a cottage in the woods.

“We weren’t building to sell,” he explained.

When the families were finished, when they had moved into their second and seasonal homes, they used gas-powered washers and dryers and fridges and stoves. They used gravity-fed water tanks or wells in their yards. They used candles on tables and kerosene lanterns hung on hooks on the walls. The Cunninghams ran a car-battery-powered black-and-white TV, and the Dunlaps did the same with a stereo, settling on a soundtrack of James Taylor and the Eagles, John Prine and Jackson Browne, Randy Newman and the Red Clay Ramblers. They used generators, too, all of them did, of all shapes, sizes, and kinds — 1.5-kilowatt Hondas, 3-kilowatt Briggs and Strattons, 5-kilowatt Homelites, 7-kilowatt Kirloskars, 9-kilowatt Indians, 17-kilowatt Onans. They turned them on when they needed power and turned them off when they didn’t. Some used them more often than others. Some hardly used them at all.

And they had CB radios. They gave their houses names — Skylark and Hilltop and Neptune, Sandfiddler and Sand Dollar and the Raccoon Hilton, Blue Crab and C Turtle and the Seven Cs, Tree House and Pilot House and Happy House — and they tuned their CBs to the same single frequency. All of them did. So everybody could hear everybody.

Anybody need anything?

Anybody have extra gas?

Anybody got any limes?

They were on the island. They were not alone. Eventually, together, they would come to call themselves the Generator Society. It wasn’t until later the less literal meaning turned true.


They all “knew,” Bill Berne wrote, electricity was on the way, certain to come “any day.” But 1972 became 1973. And 1973 became 1974. And 1974 became 1975. And that’s the way it was for the rest of the decade. Even as the developer put in the beginning of a proper marina, even after the greens on the golf course were finally finished, the power on Bald Head Island came from something else.

In the meantime, the families brought most of their food from the mainland in cardboard boxes and coolers: beets, tomatoes, and niblet corn in cans. They brought steaks, too, but were sure to cook them fast because they didn’t keep. They worked out an arrangement with the downtown grocer in Southport. He took orders by CB and sent the food on a boat the same day followed by a bill once a week. What they didn’t buy they caught, fishing the creeks with nets and the ocean with poles, feasting on bountiful flounder, trout, and drum. They clammed and crabbed and musseled. They plucked the occasional scallop.

They went for jogs and spotted sunning alligators and foxes that seemed to wonder who they were and why they were there. They watched loggerhead sea turtles trudge up onto the sand to lay their eggs and then used mesh wire to protect the nests from hungry raccoons. They picked up the prettiest shells.

They gathered frequently for cocktails, cherishing ice cubes, calling them “Bald Head diamonds.”

They played golf in spikes and nothing else just because they could.

Or so goes the story.

So many stories.

There was the time Charlie Young got up at night to get a drink of water and ended up wielding the butt of a broom to chase away a possum.

There was the time the Bunns stayed on the island during a hurricane and took cover in Old Baldy, the state’s oldest standing lighthouse, but still plenty sturdy, and they climbed the 108 steps to the windowed tip-top, where it was only them and a roosting white owl, and they all watched in awe of such breathtaking power.

There was the time Charlotte Dunlap got a big, rusty fishhook lodged in the meat of her calf, and Thad Wester, a pediatrician back in Lumberton, put her on a picnic table on a porch and turned spot-duty surgeon, albeit one drinking a beer, which was fine because so was the patient, and so was Pat Thomas, who serenaded the scene while playing his accordion.

And there was the time one Easter weekend when the Harpers’ garage caught fire without them even there and all of a sudden the CBs crackled — “Fire at the Harper house! Fire at the Harper house!” — and Wester and others organized lickety-split an old-fashioned bucket brigade with golf carts racing from lagoons with 20-gallon cans filled with water. People poured them on the burning wall, and they stomped out tiny fires in the leaves and the shrubs, and the garage was a goner but at least the house was not.

“Summoned the troops.” That’s how Wester put it.

“Very soon a tremendous camaraderie existed and a closeness that is usually achieved only after many years of friendship,” Bippi Grubbs said in the
collected recollections.

“We really needed each other back then, took care of each other, appreciated each other,” Bynum Tudor said in an oral history interview done a few years ago and recorded by current resident Marilyn Ridgeway.

“Depended on each other,” Charlotte Dunlap said, growing in groups, branches reaching to touch.


There was no playground.

The kids just ran.

They left their houses in the mornings and didn’t come back for hours and sometimes for entire days. They fished in the creeks. They skied down the dunes that felt like mountains. They wandered in the woods and searched for treasures: white bones of animals long since dead and old buttons of Civil War soldiers the same. They had some rules, but just a few, like stay away from the spots where the currents were stiffest. It was kind of like Camp Baldy. Only they were
in charge.

“They loved it,” Lee Wester said. “They could do anything they wanted out here.”

“Just so safe,” Charlotte Dunlap said. “And such an adventure.”

“You rarely saw other people,” Marshall Dunlap said. “You could walk the beach for days and never run into anybody.”

“Me and my brothers, we would go exploring,” David Berne said.

His dad, he said, used to drive them in his jeep to a spot on the island, any spot, drop them off and tell them to find their way home.

But they never got lost. How could they get lost? Lost on Bald Head? If they ever got disoriented, if they ever didn’t recognize where they were, just stop, they were told. Stand still. Hush up. Listen for the ocean and walk toward the sound of the surf.


Toward the ends of many afternoons, they all came together, usually gathering on East Beach, for what they took to calling TPP, or Total Population Parties. The kids’ job was to collect a mess of driftwood to make a fire. The women brought hush puppies and coleslaw. The men cooked the fish they caught that day or boiled a big pot of shrimp or made chowder from fresh clams. They ate and told stories and jokes. They played guitar and sang songs. They even shared some coveted “diamonds” for drinks.

The sun set.

Night fell.

Out came the ghost crabs skittering on the sand and the bright white stars in the sky.

At the Dunlaps’ by the beach, where they almost never ran their generator for light, the adults lit the lanterns, probably a dozen or so latched to the walls, 6 or 7 feet off the floor. They played Monopoly or dominoes or checkers or chess. The kids ran up and down the beach, around on the dunes, just enough light from the moon. They clambered up a ladder to the wide, flat deck on the roof of the house. From there, they could see the hulking cargo ships, with their blinking lights, coming in off the Atlantic and approaching the mouth of the river. They went back down in the house and grabbed all the cushions, dragged them back up to the deck, and finally closed their eyes.


Electricity was coming. This time it was real. It was May of 1980. Carolina Power & Light was saying soon. Thad Wester made jambalaya for a meeting of the property owners on the island. He and some of the others recognized the significance of this shift.

He gave framed certificates to the 19 families.

The certificates were playful but not frivolous.

“During the early years of Development and Modernization of Bald Head Island,” the certificates read, “there were families who endured Inconvenience and Privation in exchange for the Privilege of Being Married to Bald Head in a unique way known only to a few. In Recognition of those families and their Accomplishments, they are hereby declared Members in Perpetuity in …


The nine-and-a-half-mile 23,000-volt circuit stretched from a CP&L substation near Southport, running overhead, underground, and underwater. The headline in Southport’s State Port Pilot, on January 28, 1981: “Lights On At Bald Head As Power Line Complete.” The report quoted Thad Wester.

He talked about “safety, convenience and desirability” — but the advent of the ease of buttons pushed and switches flicked, he added, “causes mixed emotions, for we realize that reliable power will attract many more people …”

The generators weren’t the point, only “a common bond,” he later wrote in a letter to his grandchildren. “The idea of the Generator Society actually had less to do about generators than it did with the people who chose to pioneer those early years at Bald Head. … Not a single one of them failed to develop an emotional relationship with the island. All without lots of conversations realized how fragile the beautiful ecosystems on Bald Head are … and supported all measures to guarantee that we will return the island to our children’s children as near like we found it as possible.”


Bald Head today is not precisely what it was. There’s a post office. There’s a village hall. There’s a grocery store. There’s a country club with a fitness center that offers yoga and Pilates. There’s a golf shop. There’s a spa. There’s a reliable ferry that runs every hour and people wait for it by looking at the screens of their iPads and phones. Boutiques sell “beach flair.” Visitors show up with purses that are a little too fancy and dogs that are a little too pretty and boots that are a little too nice.

But there’s no minigolf. No movie house. No blocks of condos stacked on sand like games of Jenga. And there aren’t any cars, only golf carts, and the speed limit is all of 18. Bald Head is a hard place to be in a hurry. It can be frustrating at first for people more accustomed to a faster pace, which is most people, from most places. But there’s no choice. The ferry trip is 20 to 25 minutes of more or less mandated downshift, and once on the island you scoot around in a cart and people wave because they think they know you, or at least they think they will before too long, and they’re probably right because barely more than 200 people live on the island year-round, so you wave back. Who wants to be the only stranger? Park the cart and walk around and the sound is a rare kind of silence in which you can hear the calls and chirps of shorebirds and songbirds and the pitter-patter of animals’ paws in the forest.

The Generator Society? Most of them are gone. They’ve moved back to the mainland to be closer to medical care, or they’ve moved to Florida to be warmer in the winter. Many of them are dead. Bill Berne. Bynum Tudor. Pat Thomas. Only Thad and Lee Wester and Charlotte Dunlap still live here pretty much all year long. They used to have an annual get-together, the 19 families, but it hasn’t happened for a while.

It remains an appropriate name, though, the Generator Society, an earned name, even now, maybe especially now, because they started something on Bald Head that has not ended. Is not over. They didn’t knock down the dunes or raze the forest or pave the marsh to build their homes.

“They had a vision, and that vision was living in harmony with nature,” said Suzanne Dorsey, the executive director of the Bald Head Island Conservancy. “I think their core vision defined the future of the island.”

“They were really the root structure of what came next,” said Mary Beth Springmeier, the head of the island’s historical association.

“They’re exemplary in terms of what you might do to preserve an ecosystem as well as stabilize an island,” said Bill Smith, a biology professor at Wake Forest University. “Barrier islands should follow the example of Bald Head.”

Thad Wester sat in his living room one recent weekend morning. He’s 86 now. He still walks every day through the forest to the post office, but his thoughts often scatter, and on his couch he couldn’t always recall what he wanted to recall. He paused for long stretches to stare at the ceiling while scanning his mind for memories that had gone momentarily blank. The old clock on the wall ticked audibly and inexorably. It was clear he knew what he wanted to say. It was in there somewhere. Finally Bald Head’s Generator patriarch got it out.

“It was not easy, but it turned out OK.”

“We like where we are.”

“It’s a beautiful place.”

Michael Kruse, a graduate of Davidson College, is a staff writer at the Tampa Bay Times, where he has won state, regional, and national reporting and writing awards. His most recent story for Our State was “The Avett Brothers” (January 2013).

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25 Responses to The Generator Society of Bald Head Island

  1. Donna Lorusso says:

    My husband and I moved to BHI almost three years ago. We had been coming here for vacation since the late 80’s. We were looking for a place to retire. We looked everywhere, but we kept coming back to Bald Head Island, because we loved it and because no other place can compare.

  2. Tommy Harrelson says:

    What a fine article. It’s so good that it was written while some of the original “Generator Society” members are still here to be quoted. Our family had the downtown grocery store in Southport, so we got to know all the families. They’d call in their orders and we’d have them ready for pickup or delivery to the docks, always dependent on the tides. They were all excellent people who loved Bald Head as most of the locals did.

    • Francie Thompson says:

      My parents Paul and Frances Thimpson of Chattanooga arrived in August 1981 on the advice of dear friends the Coreys who bought a home on the golf course. Hicks &Virginia Corey as well as Jeanne & Joe Richardson other Chattanoogans were also early 80’s residents.

      I vividly recall staying out at the Inn with our Hickory friends the Huttons. After running out of beer I saw a light on and ventured out to see if we might find anyone with a few
      extra beers. Sure enough a case was given to us by then Island owner Walter Davis who was negotiating the sale of the island to George Mitchell. The next day we learned that indeed Bald Head had a new owner!

      does anyone know what year did Harrelsons Grocery store close down? In 1980 and for several years we enjoyed getting our provisions before heading over. I remember Mr Harrelson fondly

  3. Shelley Boehling says:

    Dear Our State editors, I am the one of the grandchildren of “The Capertons,” who built the 4th house on BHI and were part of the Generator Society (next to the Tudor House! Hello, Elizabeth!). I have incredibly special memories of those early days! My grandparents’ ashes are in the Caperton Memorial garden in front of the village chapel.

    This article was beautifully written. When it came out earlier, I bought copies for my parents and sister!

    I live in Wilmington, NC now and get to BHI every year or so.

    Shelley McVey Boehling

  4. [+] says:

    hopefully it will be saved from becoming another obnoxious Virginia Beach annex like Corolla, KDH and Nags Head.

  5. Jim Poole, MD says:

    My father, Frank Poole, just loved the place! I talked him and mom into camping on the island, which we did one time in a huge storm with my parents, my future bride, and my brother Bill. Mom had us walk to the Inn, which was falling into the ocean, in the driving storm and cold, to sleep; which of course we were totally soaked and could only see by the light of a lantern on our journey from our lot. Brother Bill was dry as a bone when we returned and warm as he made a bed of warm coals, pine straw, and plastic overhead! We were the only ones on the island besides the security guards, long before the first house! What I totally remember as the best thing was the total camaraderie of all the “early” settlers, and for the first many years, Dad and I held free clinics for anyone who was sick as it was very difficulty to get back to the mainland. Many of those warm memories and relationships are still present today, as our parents, kids, and the grand kids all learned of the Ball Head Gold (ice!!) and helping each other!

    • Shelley Boehling says:

      Hello, Jim. My grandparents, Bo and Mildred Caperton, loved your parents! They were over at the “Milbo Hilton” many times for cocktails! I still remember “Dr. Poole,” Mrs. Poole, and your wonderful house with the tree in the middle of it!

      Sincerely, Shelley McVey Boehling

  6. Lisa Clemmons says:

    I fell in love with BHI back in the late 1990’s when I got a job working at the River Pilot Restaurant. It is everything and more and so beautiful. I have seen the changes over the years and hope they try to not make too many changes in the future. In 2001 I married into the Clemmons family from southport and learned that my husbands grandfather was the first light house keeper on Bald Head. I was also blessed to hear the wonderful stories from my husband’s mother about their adventures on the Island with the wild boars and other animals. Thanks to all for sharing this wonderful story with us and I am looking forward to reading more in the future.

    • Susan Usher Eggert says:

      Who did you marry? I’m assuming it was his maternal grandfather who was the first lightkeeper. Hope you will share some of the stories you have heard over the years. My grandfather was Garfield Clemmons and he was with the US Coast Guard at Fort Caswell for many years, and stationed with the US Army there in WW I.

  7. Sylvia Parker says:

    This was so informative and entertaining. I wish “The Society” could publish more on the history with human-interest stories thrown in like this. I would also like to say thank you to Dr. Wester who was my now 40 year old son’s first pediatrician. He got us through many illnesses and was always patient with a first-time mother.

  8. Janet Padrick says:

    What a wonderful article on the history of Bald Head Island. I am a native Wilmingtonian and quite familiar with the island and Old Baldy. My grandson and his fiancé are marrying in June 2014 on Bald Head Island. I gave the article to them and they enjoyed it so very much.
    I am including it in a scrap book I am making for them which begins with their first meeting and ends with their marriage in the Village Chapel on Bald Island.

  9. Joe Molnar says:

    The article about BHI captured the essential spirit of the those brave, adventurous people who lived there and made a life for themselves there. Having visited islands in Maine and in NC, I’ve come to respect the “island people” as independent, adventurous people who have an adamant desire to live out their lives as they believe they should.

  10. Greg Speicher says:

    Never been. But this article sure makes you wanna Go. Lived in St John USVI for about 2 years No power on the East End of the Island– Coral Bay, there is now. Shear bliss. Isn’t it funny the things you really don’t need, untill you have them. Life should be this simple. Relaxed. I’m sure this world would be a better place. Spike

  11. Tom Reeves says:

    I came to know BHI while living in Wilmington, NC and first visited with my wife Ginny Wester, one of the Wester daughters. My family has seen the island change dramatically since I first encountered it in the mid 80″s when things were much more simple. We have spent so many wonderful times on this island with both family as well as Lee and Doc “as I call him”. He is truly a remarkable and unique person whom he and I have spent many great times teaching fishing school together “which he started” or on the golf links or just sitting in our favorite family enclosed porch room enjoying the unique indoor grill having an adult cocktail while reflecting the past. I will always cherish these found memories that few get to experience being related to Lee and Thad and the wonderful place that is Bald Head Island.

  12. Mya Glubpanny says:

    After that unsolved murder in 1999, my feelings about Bald Head Island have been dampened.
    Some said there was a cover-up, that there was drug trade involved. It gives me the creeps.

  13. Thurman Galloway says:

    Thank you for surfacing memories of a wonderful UNCW summer archeology course . The course was conducted on beautiful Baldhead Island in the mid 1980s. Fifteen students excavating by day and partying by night, exploring a wonderful paradise.

  14. Bill Raker says:

    Some of my most cherished childhood memories come from the days when we loaded 3 and 4 families with bikes and luggage onto the Ibis, the Westers sailboat, braving our way across the river to a special place that’s virtually unrecognizable today. It was paradise.

  15. Katherine says:

    My own associations are nothing as romantic but of lovely old Cape Cod. But I wanted to say this piece is so beautifully written, and evocative of a time and place I have not known, until now. Thank you.

  16. Pingback: 10 Thursday PM Reads | The Big Picture

  17. Anne Brock says:

    Our family vacationed at Long Beach, NC (now Oak Island) in the 50’s & 60’s. My older siblings & beach neighbors would sneak off Long Beach to venture over to Bald Head in a small boat. They would later return with great sea shells and big stories of the wild boar running rampant. Not sure how much of that was true! In early married years (70’s), we had several memorable adventures at the Schmulling home at Bald Head – gathering our groceries at the Southport grocery store, rushing to the ferry before it left, spending long days on the beach, golf cart races to/from East Beach. It was real big when electricity came! Many thanks for this article!

  18. William Bourne says:

    My own family enjoyed a similar life for almost eighty years on Cape Lookout, until the National Park Service took away our 1915 house. While we say Bald Head is the Cape with electricity and a country club, it’s also the place we now own our own little house in the woods.

  19. Pingback: The Generator Society | Our State Magazine | Mark Solock Blog

  20. Elizabeth Tudor says:

    I’d like to thank the author for an accurate depiction of our memories. Ice, however, was called ISLAND DIAMONDS in our household. If they hit the floor, we would brush them off , give them to our collie or put them in a planter or cooler. They were precious then and water still is to this day-everywhere. Bald Head was a place to conserve and do with little, but dream about BIG dreams. I’m thankful to have had that place with those wonderful neighbors, to dream and live out many of them so far. Here’s to community and caring.- Elizabeth Tudor -current owner of “Hilltop”

  21. Hutson Wester says:

    It took a half dozen of my friends to call me to look up this article. I have not taken the State Magazine for several years, and therefore did not have access to it. Finally my daughter-in-law sent this article to me. It is great and very accurate.

    You see, I was well aware of all that occurred during the time of the “Generator Society” since Thad Wester is my older brother. I remember well the early days.. And I use to think..”what a place to visit, but I am not sure I could live here”..

    Hutsn Wester, Henderson,N C

  22. Britt Wester says:

    My fondest childhood memories are of Bald Head before electricity. Thank you Uncle Thad and Aunt Lee. We love you.
    Britt, Amy, Alex and Ben

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