Portsmouth Island: The Loneliest Land

  • By Molly Harrison
  • Photography by Ray Matthews

Uninhabited Portsmouth Island is difficult to reach, lacks the most basic comforts, and has brutal conditions — yet is beloved by those who find comfort in its simplicity.


Editor’s Note: This story originally appeared in January 2012.

Rising from the Pamlico Sound south of Ocracoke, on the watery, windy edge of the state, Portsmouth Island is one of the last few wild, uninhabited islands along the North Carolina coast. Out here, beyond bridges, beyond telephone poles and power lines, in the sticky, salty ocean air, lies a barrier island as it is meant to be — vast stretches of smooth, white beach with natural dunes; salt marshes of swishing spartina and needlerush; plains of grasses cut by winding, blue creeks; hummocks of wax myrtles and scrappy, salt-stunted cedars and live oaks; sand flats that alternate between drenched and desert dry.

Twenty-two miles long and never more than a mile wide, Portsmouth is three miles across the sound from Down East Carteret County. Together with South Core Banks, home of Cape Lookout, and Shackleford Banks, the island is forever protected from development as part of the Cape Lookout National Seashore.

The National Park Service formed the seashore in 1976 to create a place where nature takes priority, a place where pelicans outnumber people, where sea turtles nest without the distraction of artificial light, where the island migrates in its own way, in its own time.

This isolation is easy to maintain, as Portsmouth is not easy to reach. The gateway points to the island — Ocracoke Island on the Outer Banks, or Atlantic to the southwest — are also remote, a long drive or ferry ride away from the beaten path. From these places, Portsmouth is accessible only by boat, always an unpredictable means of travel. Winds whip up without warning, and the weather rarely lines up with plans; you’re at the mercy of the elements.

You either learn the route yourself in your own boat and risk running aground a few times, or you ride with someone who knows how to get there. About 90 percent of Portsmouth’s visitors come from Ocracoke, and one of Ocracoke’s top guides is Rudy Austin, who’s been going to Portsmouth all his life. You don’t book this trip on the internet; you call on the telephone to Austin’s house and leave a message with his wife if he’s out.

From Atlantic, you take a small ferry from the Morris Marina. It’s about an hour-long trip, ending up on the island’s south end where the park service maintains a few primitive cabins on the beach. You can ferry a four-wheel drive over from Atlantic, and plenty of people do, driving the island in search of fish, stopping to camp wherever they feel like it.

Far from the developed world, Portsmouth lacks even the most basic comforts. There is no fresh water to drink, nothing to buy, no one to warn you of dangerous currents in the Atlantic, no one to pull your SUV out of the sand trenches if you get stuck. Conditions are harsh: unbroken winds, powerful waves, little shade, few escapes from the island’s infamous mosquitoes and biting flies.

But on busy days, there are fewer than 30 people on all 22 miles of the island, and it is possible to find your own wave to surf, slough to fish, beach to walk. The beach is littered with spills from the sea — whelks, cockles, pen shells, Scotch bonnets, sand dollars. The sound channels, the ocean surf, the inlet depths teem with fish. At night, there are fewer people still, and the dark is solid black, pierced with the most stars you’ve ever seen.

Out here, devoid of most human noise, there is the mind-clearing quiet of nature, and the small sounds of the island are stark and healing: the squeaky flap of a cormorant’s wings overhead, the sizzle of sea foam over broken shells in a backwashing wave, the clicking of sand-fiddler claws as they scuffle in the mud, the splash of a jumping mullet breaking flat water.


There’s an unexpected clearing on the marshy edges on the north end of the island — the other side of Portsmouth, the kept side. First a steeple peaks above the trees, then a windowed lookout cupola. Coming up closer, it’s an eerie sight: a tidy village on an uninhabited island, no signs of life except for the well-kept buildings. The white church, standing alone on its patch of balding grass, is a sign of despair in its loneliness and hope in its freshly painted presence.

Here are memories of a former life: cottages with warbled windows and picket fences; the simple, wooden schoolhouse with its fold-up desks inside and cistern out back; the post office with its polished, metal boxes and big bell in the window; the general store with its cans and bottles and old ledger; the Salter-Dixon House with its quilt-covered beds and photos of old islanders; the picturesque, cedar-sided Portsmouth Life-Saving Station, neatly trimmed in red, with its metal bunks and breeches buoy.

On this part of Portsmouth, it feels as if the villagers will be right back in a minute, as if they’ll come walking out of those wild edges and back into their island life. But Portsmouth’s old villagers are not coming back.


European settlers set their sights on Portsmouth Island in the mid-1700s because of its location along Ocracoke Inlet, the state’s major trade route at the time. Portsmouth was the Outer Banks’ first planned village; instead of growing up slowly, one house at a time, it was planned on paper in 1753 before anyone actually lived here.

In short order, Portsmouth grew to be a thriving maritime port. In the mid-1800s, more than 1,400 cargo vessels per year came through Ocracoke Inlet, and Portsmouth, along with Ocracoke, provided all the manpower, warehouses, wharves, merchants, and lightering vessels to support such commerce. By 1850, the village had more than 500 residents.

Portsmouth’s decline came after the opening of Oregon and Hatteras inlets in the hurricane of 1846. Over the years, sea trade moved farther up the Outer Banks, and Portsmouth established no new industry. The U.S. Life-Saving Station built on the island in 1894 provided a few jobs for some island men until it was decommissioned in 1937. But a string of devastating hurricanes drove many people to give up island life. By the early 20th century, Portsmouth was just a small, close-knit enclave of fishing families. In 1955, there were 12 people left on the island. By 1971, only three people were left. That year, the last male resident passed away, and the last two female residents stopped staying year-round but came back to spend time there until they got too old to make the trip.

The village may have been abandoned long ago, but it has not been forgotten. It may look empty, but it doesn’t feel that way.

“No one lives there, but I feel like there’s a strong presence, something of a closeness to the spirit of the past,” says Dave Frum, the National Park Service’s Portsmouth village caretaker. “You get the sense that important things happened here.”

Even today, people with family connections or ties to the old village have a fierce love for the island. Even the ones who had to eat seagull eggs in hard times, who had to travel by boat to Ocracoke to get a chunk of ice, who had smoke blowers on their lawn mowers to ward off mosquitoes, longed for Portsmouth Island when they were gone.


Today, Portsmouth village is preserved by the National Park Service as a museum-like reminder of a long-gone time and place — a 1930s Outer Banks fishing village — a place most of us never knew and no one will ever know again. Displays and exhibits tell the stories of the people who lived here, the harsh life they endured, and their love for it, too.

Frum and many dedicated volunteers lovingly tend the village for visitors. Volunteers-in-residence pitch in at various times, coming to live on the island alone or in twos for a couple of weeks in the summer and fall, to mow the grass and greet the visitors coming in at Haulover Point or Wallace Channel docks. A group of island descendants and devotees known as the Friends of Portsmouth Island lends a hand, too, raising money, working on the island buildings, and holding a reunion every other year to keep interest in the village alive.

An Ocracoke resident, Frum has been boating to Portsmouth two days a week for more than 20 years and has probably spent more time on the island than most anyone alive. He’s taken everything nature can dish out in the name of maintaining this village.

Frum knows Portsmouth Island. He can tell you when the indigo buntings are there in April, when the blue teal are there in September, when the gannets will blow in during winter. The plants, the animals, the weather, the feeling of the old village —it’s all become a huge part of his life.

“It’s one of those places that gets in your heart,” Frum says. “It has a draw on you. If you spend time there, it grips ahold of you.”

That’s what people often say when they talk about their love for Portsmouth Island. They talk about the strong magnetism of the island and laugh about the impracticality of feeling most drawn to the place that’s the least comfortable and the hardest to reach.

Portsmouth Island
For information about the island, including ferries and future homecomings, visit the Friends of Portsmouth Island at

Molly Harrison is a freelance writer and editor living in Nags Head who writes extensively about the people and places of the Outer Banks. Her most recent story for Our State was “Waterside Weaver” (December 2011).

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Since 1933, Our State has shared stories about North Carolina with readers both in state and around the world. We celebrate the people and places that make this state great. From the mountains to the coast, we feature North Carolina travel, history, food, and beautiful scenic photography.
This entry was posted in Coast, January 2012 and tagged , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

17 Responses to Portsmouth Island: The Loneliest Land

  1. Alexis says:

    My grandfather was born and raised on the island. His photos are all posted as historical plagues. Its truly an honor to know my grandfather was a great man.and he fought for our country.

  2. Diana says:

    again, is there a postal service or office near Turtle Island where the gentleman; Eustace Conway of the History Channel can get mail? If not , how does he get his mail where he is?

  3. stauffer miller says:

    I have been researching a union civil war soldier who spent almost a year at Portsmouth Hospital, in 1862 to 1863. He was first a patient, then a nurse there. He served there under three different union army surgeons. He mentions working with a gang of contrabands to unload a ship loaded with wood. I am having trouble finding any information on the union’s use of this hospital. Any help I would appreciate. Stauffer Miller

    • Ellen Fulcher Cloud says:

      What was the union soldier’s name? I am the historian for The Friends of Portsmouth Island and am always interested in learning about anyone that spent time on the island in the past. specially during the Civil War. have written two books about the island.

  4. Joshua W says:

    I just wanted to commend you on this article. It is excellent and makes me very nostalgic for the time I camped there for a week after being dropped off by Capt. Austin. I’m sure he thought I was crazy for doing it and likely chuckled as he boated away with us standing on the shore with our hiking packs. You really nailed how I felt spending time there. It was magical, except for those damn mosquitos.

    How can you hate the state bird of North Carolina though?

  5. Vicky Salter says:

    When is the Reunion this year(2014)? My husband Tom is related to Theodore Salter.

    • Simona says:

      The reunion or actually the Portsmouth Island Homecoming is always every even year the Saturday after Easter, this year on April 26th. Hope to see everyone there!!!

  6. Dennis Mooney says:

    We will be doing some dock maintenance on the Island. I am looking forward to the task as it
    is a unique location to work at.


  7. Ginny Pospisil says:

    My grandmother and great grandparents lived on Portsmouth. I have some of my great grandfather’s Coast Guard papers as well as my grandmother’s report cards from school. I went to visit for the first time in May 2013. I was proud of my heritage and seeing my family in pictures on historical plaques. I also visited graves of family resting there.

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  9. Rod Tozour says:

    Spent a little time at the Ocracoke Coast Guard station after being at the old Oregon Inlet then settling in Buxton’s Group office from 1968-1972. Still love Hatteras and its great people and will be spending 1/2 year starting next year on the island when I retire. It is sad that the Ocracoke station and Buxton stations are gone. We used to go over to Portsmouth Island to check on the folks that lived there. Still know a couple of folks on Ocracoke and miss the 60s just surfing, fishing and being Coast Guard

  10. Dave Porter says:

    I have read almost everything I can find on Portsmouth Island. I have seen photos of the island and believe it is as close to paradise as I have seen. Sure you have to bring everything you need but,it has more to offer for people who love the old fashion way. I would love to visit the island as I have never been. However I will always be there in my heart. By the way even the garden of Eden had snakes.

  11. Chris Brown says:

    I’ll be interested to see if any of the 13 stranded “Sandy” survivors weigh in here. We’ve had em on the prayer list since the ferry failed to return for them Saturday, and understand that they are off the island today. They were left alone for the duration without food and water – so I am sure they got their monies worth of roughing it and getting back to nature! I bet a mile wide is not near enough in a hurricane!

    • Tim Hamrick says:

      Yes ,I was one of the seven vehicles that the ferry could not come back and get. The waves and wind were to much as making a loaded trip could have meant disaster. The Captain did try to come back and get us ,”he really did care”; but when the waves came over the bow and the wind carried the splash over his two story high perch where he drove the ferry, he decided that even if he had made it accross the loaded trucks would act as a sail and he couldn’t steer the ferry. Overturning would be considered not good.
      The wind held up the incoming waves to the very last moment and the sight of the sea spray being carried 40-50 yards backward past the waves was a sight to see. Oh how the ocean was angry that day and night. The waves completely destroyed the eight foot high dunes that were in front of the cabin (17-18) we were in. Cabins 15-16 were actually hit by incoming waves as the dunes in front of that cabin were flatened. Old vehicles were uncovered at the oceans edge where they had rested ,buried for many years. i had heard that the park service had put them there to help with the building up of the sea shore.The most the winds got were around 50mph. Bad but not damaging . The National Park service has a lot of work to do to make it safe for anyone to stay in the cabins and I imagine it will take a while since the waves broke the buried power lines and it left most of the cabins without power.
      I do dislike the fact that I was abandoned by the NPS but I understand not putting any one eles life in danger to correct a situation in which maybe or maybe not someone would get hurt in evacuation efforts. We were told on Tuesday that even the Coast Guard could not even make it out to pick us up. Um, I would have thought that the Coast Gaurd could have ; the commercials they have on TV show them rescueing people in far worse winds than that Also the fact that some stranded didn’t have any food. Hurrah to the groups of fishermen with food that fed the fishermen without food and made survival an even greater event. I tip my hat to the people of NORTH CAROLINA. If ever again I am in perril and my life could be taken ;I do want my experience to be with fellow North Carolinians. Hope I spelled that right. Oh yeah, I do want to thank our loving caring GOD who let me survive to live another day.Praise Him.

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  13. SSearight says:

    Wonderful article … Portsmouth is a beautiful island . To me Portsmouth Island is how all the Outer Banks islands should still look like ; tranquil untouched Beaches and Sound . the animals “vacation get away” favorite destination for great fishing Surfing and unspoiled woods to relax in undisturbed by few humans ..
    Portsmouth Island is one of the few places Man gave back to Mother Nature .
    I’m thankful the island has a devoted following to keep her shores safe.
    My love for both islands Ocracoke and Portsmouth are strong… I hope to live there again someday … in this life or the next .

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